The National Institute of Corrections (NIC), in collaboration with the Crime and Justice Institute, listed Evidence-Based Principles of Effective Interventions. The following are eight Evidence-Based Principles (or elements) that have been determined to serve as a foundation for agencies in effectively reducing crime, violence and gang behavior:
1. Assess Actuarial Risk/Needs
a. Assessing offenders' risk and needs (focusing on dynamic and static risk factors and criminogenic needs) at the individual and aggregate (collected together from different sources) levels is essential
2. Enhance Intrinsic (deep down, deep rooted ) (self) Motivation
a. Research strongly suggests that "motivational interviewing"(rap sessions) techniques, rather than persuasion tactics, effectively enhance motivation for initiating and maintaining behavior change.
3. Target Interventions:a. Risk Principle - Prioritize supervision and treatment resources for higher risk offenders.
b. Need Principle - Target interventions to criminogenic needs
i. Eight Common Criminogenic Needs (Dynamic Risk Factors)
The top four are the most significant impact on future recidivism and should be considered the primary intervention targets
1. History of anti-social behavior
2. Anti-social attitudes, cognitions
3. Anti-social associates, peers
4. Anti-social behavior
The bottom four are secondary targets for intervention unless one or more of these risk factors are assessed as central to the criminal behavior
5. Family, marital stressors
6. Lack of employment stability, achievement
7. Lack of educational achievement
8. Lack of pro-social leisure activities ... i.e. substance abuse
c. Responsivity Principle - Be responsive to temperament, learning style, motivation, gender, and culture when assigning to programs.
d. Dosage - Structure 40% to 70% of high-risk offenders' time for 3 to 9 months.
e. Treatment Principle - Integrate treatment into full sentence/sanctions requirements.
4. Skill Train with Directed Practice
a. Provide evidence-based programming that emphasizes cognitive-behavior strategies and is delivered by well-trained staff.
5. Increase Positive Reinforcements
a. Apply four positive reinforcements for everyone negative reinforcement for optimal behavior change results.
6. Engage Ongoing Support in Natural Communities
a. Realign and actively engage pro-social support for offenders in their communities for positive reinforcement of desired new behaviors.
7. Measure Relevant Processes, Activities and Practices
a. An accurate and detailed documentation of case information and staff performance, along with a formal and valid mechanism
for measuring outcomes, is the foundation of evidence-based practice.
8. Provide Measurement Feedback (for improvement)
a. Providing feedback builds accountability and maintains integrity, ultimately improving outcomes.